POWER FACTOR CORRECTION


Displacement PF is defined as the cosine of the angle between fundamental voltage and fundamental current of the load.The presence of Harmonics increases the RMS current and voltage relative to their respective fundamental values. This increases the KVA of the Load. The Power Factor taking into account the effect of the Harmonics is called the TRUE POWERFACTOR.
True PF ≤ Displacement PF The factor by which Displacement PF is related to the True PF is called the Distortion PF

Only Capacitors can improve Displacement Power Factor

The application of shunt capacitors to industrial power systems has several benefits. Among these are:

  • Benefit 1 — Reduce Power Bills
  • Benefit 2 — Gains in System Capacity
  • Benefit 3 — Improve Voltage Conditions
  • Benefit 4 — Reduce Line Losses

Listed below are various installation options. Care must be taken in sizing and placing power factor correction capacitors. Leading power factor, greater than 100%, must be avoided. The capacitors should only be online when the load requires kVAR and disconnected when the load is reduced.

OPTION A —

Install directly at the single speed induction motor terminals (on the secondary of the overload relay).
Advantages:
  • Can be switched on or off with the motors, eliminating the need for separate switching devices or overcurrent protection. Also, only energized when the motor is running
  • Since kVAR is located where it is required, line losses and voltage drops are minimized; while system capacity is maximized
Disdvantages:
  • Installation costs are higher when a large number of individual motors need correction
  • Overload relay settings must be changed to account for lower motor current draw
Product:
  • Usually the best location for individual capacitors

OPTION B —

Install between the contactor and the overload relay. With this option the overload relay can be set for nameplate full load current of motor. Otherwise the same as Option A.
Product:
  • Usually the best location for individual capacitors

OPTION C —

Advantages:
  • Larger, more cost effective capacitor banks can be installed as they supply kVAR to several motors. This is recommended for jogging motors, multispeed motors and reversing applications
Disadvantages:
  • Since capacitors are not switched with the motors, overcorrection can occur if all motors are not running(1)
  • Since reactive current must be carried a greater distance, there are higher line losses and larger voltage drops
Product:
  • Large banks of fixed kVAR with fusing on each phase or GEMATIC automatically switched banks

OPTION D —

Install at the main distribution bus.
Product:
  • Lower installation cost, since you install fewer banks in large kVAR blocks
Disadvantages:
  • Overcorrection can occur under lightly loaded conditions(1)
  • A separate disconnect switch and overcurrent protection is required
Product:
  • Large banks of fixed kVAR with fusing on each phase or GEMATIC automatically switched banks

System harmonics should be considered when applying power factor correction capacitors. Although capacitors do not generate harmonics, under certain conditions they can

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Install between the upstream circuit breaker and the contactor.
  • 3 + 5 =

 Amplify existing harmonics. Harmonics are generated when non-linear loads are applied to power systems. These non-linear loads include: adjustable speed drives, programmable controllers, induction furnaces, computers, and uninterruptible power supplies. Capacitors can be used successfully with nonlinear loads when harmonic resonant conditions are avoided FACTOR.

Are you facing a situation where the supply current is lagging the applied voltage? If you are facing such a problem, then you must have power factor correction capacitors made by Power Matrix Solutions Pvt. Ltd. placed so that you can get relief from such effects.

Reasons for having poor power factors

There are basically two reasons for having detrimental power factors. The reasons are:

  • When an equipment draws current out of the phase with the supply voltage
  • It can also happen when the drawn power is in non-sinusoidal wave

What is power Factor Correction Capacitor

The power factor of your installations can be improved by placement of power factor capacitors where they work as reactive generators of power. This is required when you notice that the apparent current is superior to the working current that you are getting.

Where do you need to install these capacitors?

You may be thinking where to install these capacitors for having the best result. We not only supply you with the best capacitors but also help you in the proper installation of those. The ideal places to use these capacitors are:

  • If you find that load that is applied is continuous in nature and it is stable, then the capacitors are placed in the main LV distribution board that you have. There are various advantages that you can have from such installation like:
  • Reduction in penalties regarding traffic for the consumption of kvars which is excessive
  • It helps in reduction of KVA demand for apparent current.
  • It helps is making the supply transformer free so that it can take up more load.
  • If you have a huge installation where the load/time pattern differs from sector to sector, then the capacitors need to be fitted with the bus bars that are present at the local board for distribution. The advantages that can be achieved are:
  • Reduction in penalties regarding traffic for the consumption of kvars which is excessive
  • It helps in reduction of KVA demand for apparent current.
  • It helps is making the supply transformer free so that it can take up more load.
  • The supply cable size can be reduced
  • There will be a reduction in the loss that happens in the cables.
  • If you see that the power that is used by the motor is significant if compared with the power that you have in the installation, then these capacitors are connected to the terminals to have the desired result. The advantages that can be achieved in such a case are:
  • Reduction in penalties regarding traffic for the consumption of kvars which is excessive
  • It helps in reduction of KVA demand for apparent current.
  • Cable size and loss in the cable can also be reduced by such implementation.

The Usage of Power Factor Correction Capacitors

There are various usages of these capacitors. Let us see the usage so that we can also those for our installations:

  • It helps in the reduction of demand charges.
  • Having an improved power factor by means of the usage of proper power correction we can reduce the electric bills that we pay.
  • Current will be capable of carrying new loads if power correction is properly done.
  • It will help you to save money as there would no need for system up gradation.
  • The voltage drop will be reduced in the conductor.
  • You will be able to have a reduction in the loss that occurs in power systems.
  • There will be reduction of carbon footprint
If you wish to have such power factor correction capacitors, then you need to have it from Power Matrix Solutions Pvt. Ltd.

    Power Matrix Solution

    ADDRESS

    Factory-Plot 221 Behind Oswal Industrial Complex, Mouje, Bhadwad Gaon, Sonale Village, Bhiwandi, Thane - 421 302. Maharashtra, India.

    PHONE

    +91 9594051710

    EMAIL

    support@powermatrix.in
    sales@powermatrix.in